Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. f.

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Credits

Article from Bean's Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles

Article from New Trees, Ross Bayton & John Grimshaw

Recommended citation
'Eucalyptus gunnii' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online (treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/eucalyptus/eucalyptus-gunnii/). Accessed 2021-09-21.

Common Names

  • Cider Gum

Synonyms

  • E. archeri Maiden and Blakely
  • E. divaricata McAulay & Brett

Glossary

alternate
Attached singly along the axis not in pairs or whorls.
authority
The author(s) of a plant name. The names of these authors are stated directly after the plant name often abbreviated. For example Quercus L. (L. = Carl Linnaeus); Rhus wallichii Hook. f. (Hook. f. = Joseph Hooker filius i.e. son of William Hooker). Standard reference for the abbreviations: Brummitt & Powell (1992).
bloom
Bluish or greyish waxy substance on leaves or fruits.
calyx
(pl. calyces) Outer whorl of the perianth. Composed of several sepals.
campanulate
Bell-shaped.
connate
Fused together with a similar part. (Cf. adnate.)
glaucous
Grey-blue often from superficial layer of wax (bloom).
hybrid
Plant originating from the cross-fertilisation of genetically distinct individuals (e.g. two species or two subspecies).
lanceolate
Lance-shaped; broadest in middle tapering to point.
mallee
Multistemmed growth form of many Eucalyptus species in which numerous stems arise from ground level from an individual plant (from the lignotuber).
orbicular
Circular.
ovate
Egg-shaped; broadest towards the stem.
ovoid
Egg-shaped solid.
subspecies
(subsp.) Taxonomic rank for a group of organisms showing the principal characters of a species but with significant definable morphological differentiation. A subspecies occurs in populations that can occupy a distinct geographical range or habitat.
truncate
Appearing as if cut off.

References

There are no active references in this article.

Credits

Article from Bean's Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles

Article from New Trees, Ross Bayton & John Grimshaw

Recommended citation
'Eucalyptus gunnii' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online (treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/eucalyptus/eucalyptus-gunnii/). Accessed 2021-09-21.

A tree to about 100 ft in the wild and as much or more in cultivation, but in unfavourable habitats it is found as a small, stunted tree; bark smooth, shed in large flakes, pale green or creamy white when freshly exposed, ageing to dark grey or greyish brown; branchlets glaucous or green, smooth or somewhat wrinkled. Juvenile leaves opposite, stalkless, broadly elliptical to orbicular, 1 to 134 in. long, glaucous or green; adult leaves alternate, stalked, lanceolate to ovate, 135 to 3 in. long, 35 to 125 in. wide, glaucous or green. Flowers borne in autumn in usually three-flowered umbels; buds stalkless or almost so; calyx-tube cylindrical or slightly urn-shaped, operculum shorter than the calyx-tube and hemispherical or conical. Fruits green or glaucous, cylindrical to campanulate, ovoid or slightly urn-shaped, with the valves usually enclosed.

Native of Tasmania, found in marshy situations on the central plateau, where it forms subalpine woodland, often in association with Athrotaxis selaginoides; discovered in 1840 and introduced not long after. It is a variable species in such characters as the colouring of the leaves and fruit, which may be green or glaucous, and in the shape of the latter. There is also some variability in hardiness, as might be expected of a species that grows in a broken mountain terrain from 2,000 to 3,500 ft. But of all the arborescent eucalypts that have been widely enough planted for any firm judgement to be made, E. gunnii has so far proved to be the hardiest.

Many of the trees cultivated in this country descend from the famous tree (blown down a few years ago) that grew at Whittingehame in East Lothian, a few miles from the North Sea. It was probably planted in 1853 and measured 96 × 1934 ft in 1957. Its seed and seedlings were widely distributed and seem to have proved uniformly hardy. It has been suggested that it was a hybrid with E. urnigera, but Maiden – in his day the foremost authority on the genus – considered it to be typical E. gunnii. Another important source of seed is the planting at Brightlingsea, Essex, near the Colne estuary; this was made by Thomas Bateman around 1887 and probably raised from seed received from the Estancia Negrete in S. Argentina. Many trees of this planting still exist at Brightlingsea, and an account of them will be found in Gard. Chron., Nov. 23, 1963.

The following are the largest specimens of E. gunnii recorded in recent years: Trebah, Cornwall, 110 × 1134 ft (1959); Sidbury, Devon, pl. 1890, 75 × 1312 ft (1959); Sheffield Park, Sussex, pl. 1912, 90 × 1012 ft (1968); Wakehurst Place, Sussex, 77 × 12 ft (1965); Castle Kennedy, Wigtown, 90 × 1112 ft (1967). A tree at Kew near the Pagoda, raised from Whittingehame seed and planted in 1896, blew down in 1963. There is another by the Unicorn Gate, probably from the same source and planted at the same time, which measures 60 × 5 ft (c. 1965).

E. glaucescens Maiden & Blakely E. gunnii var. glauca Deane & Maiden Tingiringi Gum. – This species, of recent introduction, makes a mallee or small tree to about 40 ft high; bark white when first exposed, darkening to grey; young stems reddish brown, covered with a silvery bloom. Juvenile foliage brilliantly silver-glaucous. Adult leaves glaucous, rather thick and leathery, up to 5 in. long and 45 in. wide. Buds and fruit both glaucous, the latter barrel-shaped, with a truncate base. It is a native of New South Wales and Victoria at high altitudes. Only recently introduced, it promises to make a hardy and very ornamental tree of moderate size.

E. perriniana Rodway E. gunnii var. montana Hook. f. Spinning Gum. – A small tree of the mallee type growing to about 20 ft high in the wild state, with a deciduous brownish and grey bark. Juvenile leaves glaucous, but less so in some forms than in others. They are opposite for an indefinite number of pairs, semi-circular, but each pair united into an apparently single, perfoliate leaf. These connate leaves eventually become detached from the stem and spin around in the wind – hence the popular name. Adult leaves lanceolate or sickle-shaped, 3 to 412 in. long and up to 1 in. wide, usually glaucous. Fruits small (15 in. long), borne in threes on a short, stout common stalk.

A native of Tasmania from 1,000 to 2,000 ft, and of the mountains of Victoria and New South Wales, where it ascends to 5,000 ft. It once had the reputation for tenderness but provenances of recent introduction have proved hardy. At Goudhurst in Kent V. R. Waldron has a very glaucous and hardy strain deriving from seeds sent by Dr Martin from Tasmania in 1957.

From the Supplement (Vol. V)

specimens: Kew, near Lion Gate, 72 × 7 ft (1979); Wakehurst Place, Sussex, 90 × 1014 ft (1980) and 80 × 10 ft (1978); Clock House, Cowfold, Sussex. pl. 1913, 75 × 8 ft (1978); Sheffield Park, Sussex, pl. 1912, 121 × 1212 ft and 102 × 1234 ft (1984) and others; Holne Park, Devon, the tree measuring 98 × 1134 ft in 1977 has been blown down; Menabilly, Cornwall, 82 × 1012 ft (1984); Castle Kennedy, Wigt., 98 × 1212 ft, 102 × 912 ft and 100 × 1114 ft (1979); Logan Botanic Garden, Wigt., 70 × 1414 ft (1979); Innes House, Moray, pl. 1931, 75 × 612 ft (1980).

† E. archeri Maiden & Blakely E. gunnii subsp. archeri (Maiden & Blakely) Pryor & L. Johnson – Although merged in E. gunnii by some authorities, this is now considered to be distinct enough to rank as a subspecies of it or even as a separate species. Apart from its being only a shrub or small tree, it differs in its non-glaucous foliage and some other characters. It occurs at higher altitudes than E. gunnii.

E. glaucescens – There is an example at Grey Timbers, Brimley, Devon, pl. 1959, measuring 66 × 512 ft (1979)

E. perriniana – An example at the Forest Research Station, Alice Holt, Hampshire, pl. 1966, measures 50 × 2 ft (1980).

From New Trees

Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. f.

Cider Gum

This species was described by Bean (B132) and Krüssmann (K49).


subsp. divaricata (McAulay & Brett) B.M. Potts

Common Names
Miena Cider Gum

Synonyms
E. divaricata McAulay & Brett

This taxon is intermediate between E. archeri and typical E. gunnii and can be distinguished in several ways. The adult leaves are slightly smaller and broader (4–8 × 1.5–3 cm) than those of E. archeri (5–8 × 1–2 cm) and typical E. gunnii (5–8 × 1.2–3 cm), and the heavy waxy covering on the branchlets, flower buds and capsules is more extensive. Specimens of subsp. divaricata are more likely to retain juvenile foliage and develop a woody tuber. Oil glands are not visible on the juvenile leaves. Potts et al. 2001. Distribution AUSTRALIA: Tasmania (Central Plateau). Habitat Frost hollows with poorly drained soils in open woodland. USDA Hardiness Zone 7. Conservation status Not evaluated (IUCN), though restricted to an area of 40 km2 in central Tasmania, and considered in Australia to be endangered (Dept. of Environment, Water, Heritage & Arts 2008).

The distinctions to be made between members of the Eucalyptus gunnii complex are perhaps tenuous at times, and the view of the Gum Group (2007) is that subsp. divaricata fits within the normal range of variation of E. gunnii (although the bark can be whiter and the leaves slightly more glaucous). In the quest for hardiness, however, it is useful to be able to recognise particular populations under different names. The origin of subsp. divaricata in frost pockets on the Central Plateau of Tasmania, where temperatures can fall to –22ºC, gives it special interest in this respect, and it is ranked by the enthusiasts as equal first for hardiness in the genus alongside E. pauciflora subsp. debeuzevillei and subsp. niphophila.

Eucalyptus gunnii subsp. divaricata is freely available in commerce and has been widely planted, but some (if not many) of these trees are merely glaucous forms of subsp. gunnii (J. Purse, pers. comm. 2007). Numerous good specimens have been recorded across the British Isles by TROBI, the largest 18 m tall, 31 cm dbh, at Batsford Park, Gloucestershire in 2003 (Johnson 2003).