Fagus engleriana Seemen ex Diels

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John Grimshaw & Tom Christian (2019)

Recommended citation
Grimshaw, J. & Christian, T. (2019), 'Fagus engleriana' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online (treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/fagus/fagus-engleriana/). Accessed 2019-07-16.


Common Names

  • Engler's Beech
  • Chinese Beech


  • F. sylvatica var. chinensis Franch.


United States Department of Agriculture.
Diameter (of trunk) at breast height. Breast height is defined as 4.5 feet (1.37 m) above the ground.
Grey-blue often from superficial layer of wax (bloom).


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John Grimshaw & Tom Christian (2019)

Recommended citation
Grimshaw, J. & Christian, T. (2019), 'Fagus engleriana' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online (treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/fagus/fagus-engleriana/). Accessed 2019-07-16.

Tree to 25 m tall, usually multi-stemmed, though populations of single-stemmed trees are known in China (Cao & Peters 1998). Bark pale grey-brown. Shoots glabrous, even when young, becoming glossy brown, with long narrow buds.Leaf 5-9(-11) x 2.5-5 cm, ovate, to elliptic- or oblong-ovate, pale green, glaucescent below,  glabrous except for long silky hairs on veins below, lateral veins in 9-14 pairs, base broad-cuneate to rounded or subcordate, margin sinuate but entire, apex shortly acuminate; petiole 0.5-1.5 cm, glabrous. Peduncle 2-7 cm, glabrous. Cupule 1.5-1.8 cm; basal bracts greenish, leaflike, glabrous, veined; apical bracts brownish, filiform, hairy. Nuts slightly exserted, apex with 3 small wings. Flowering April-May, fruiting August-October (China). (Bean 1981Huang, Zhang & Zhang 1999).  






  • Distribution
  • China – Anhui, northern Guangxi, southern Guizhou, Henan, northwest Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, eastern Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.

Habitat  Montane broad-leaved and mixed forest, 1500-2500 m asl.

USDA Hardiness Zone 8b-9a

RHS Hardiness Rating H4

Conservation status Not evaluated (NE)

Taxonomic note We recommend the vernacular name Engler’s Beech to avoid confusion with other Chinese beeches.

For a tree of its moderate size and refined charms Fagus engleriana is seen and planted too infrequently. Its elegance comes from the light branching structure and the daintiness of its leaves, which have been described as ‘sea-green’ on account of their glaucous undersides when young (Dirr 2009, Johnson & More 2004). In autumn they turn to shades in the yellow-bronze range (Dirr 2009, Jacobson 1996). With a rounded outline and spreading branches the shape of F. engleriana has been compared to that of Zelkova serrata (Johnson & More 2004).

It was introduced to the Arnold Arboretum by Wilson from western Hubei in 1907 (W 703), from whence material was distributed to Kew in 1911 (Bean 1981). Two original trees, in good condition, remain in the Arnold Arboretum (Arnold Arboretum 2018). F. engleriana grows well throughout western Europe and in many parts of North America, although in cooler locations it may be slow-growing. A particularly fine, round-topped specimen of 11 m (in 2009) grows at Benenden Grange, Kent, planted by the late Collingwood ‘Cherry’ Ingram (Johnson 2015), but the British Champion is a 20 m (69 cm dbh) specimen at Westonbirt planted in 1928 (Tree Register 2019). The European Garden Flora (Cullen et al. (eds) 2011) give F. engleriana a RHS hardiness rating of H3 (USDA 9b-10a) but we believe experience to date shows this is overly conservative.


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