There are currently no active references in this article.
This species seems to be represented in the British Isles almost wholly by the following variety:
specimens: Eridge Castle, Kent, pl. 1877, 92 × 101⁄4 ft and 108 × 91⁄2 ft (1984); Leonardslee, Sussex, pl. c. 1905, 95 × 81⁄2 ft and 105 × 61⁄2 ft (1977); Gnaton Hall, Devon, 102 × 8 ft, a fine tree (1978); Tregrehan, Cornwall, 105 × 8 ft (1979); Clynders, Dunbartons., 90 × 8 ft (1979); Benmore, Argyll, pl. 1880, 90 × 11 ft (1983); Ardross Castle, Ross, pl. 1900, 78 × 83⁄4 ft (1980).
All the above belong to var. hondoensis, which is confined to the main island of Japan.
Tree to 50 m, 1–1.5 m dbh. Bark brown, smooth, becoming blackish brown or purplish grey, rough, scaly in older trees. Crown broadly conical or pyramidal, open in older trees. Branchlets slender, firm or flexible, pale yellow to orange-yellow or yellowish brown, shiny, glabrous or slightly pubescent; vegetative buds not resinous. Leaves spreading forwards, shiny green, flat to triangular in cross-section, 1–2(–2.4) × 0.15–0.2 cm, apex acute or mucronate. Male strobili 1.5–2 cm long, yellowish. Cones terminal, often clustered, sessile, cylindrical, 4–7(–9) × 2–3.5 cm, green, becoming light yellow to reddish brown when mature. Seed scales obovate-oblong, thin and papery, 1–1.2 × 0.6–0.8 cm, upper margin undulate and denticulate. Seeds light brown, ovoid to cuneate, 0.3 × 0.2 cm, wings light orange-brown, ovate-oblong, 0.6–1 × 0.4–0.5 cm. Farjon 1990, Fu et al. 1999c. Distribution CHINA: Jilin; JAPAN: Hokkaido, northern Honshu; NORTH KOREA; RUSSIAN FEDERATION: Kamchatka, Kuril Is., Sakhalin, coastal Siberia. Habitat Occurs on a variety of soils between 0 and 2700 m asl. USDA Hardiness Zone 4. Conservation status Lower Risk. Illustration Farjon 1990; NT569. Cross-references B186, K194. Taxonomic note The epithet jezoensis is derived from the former name for Hokkaido: Yezo or Jezo.
Three taxa have been distinguished in Picea jezoensis, differing perhaps as much in their geographical origins as in morphology. A key is provided below.
Cones small (3–4 × 2–2.2 cm); seed scales almost rhombic, flat; China (Jilin), North Korea
subsp. jezoensis var. komarovii
Cones large (4–7(–9) × 2–3.5 cm); seed scales obovate-oblong, flat or incurved; Japan, Russian Federation
Branchlets dark reddish brown in second year; leaves broad (1.8–2.2 cm); cones dark reddish brown at maturity; Japan (central Honshu)
Branchlets orange-yellow or yellowish brown in second year; leaves narrow (1.5–2 cm); cones light yellowish or reddish brown at maturity; Japan (Hokkaido, north Honshu), Russian Federation (Kuril Is., Sakhalin, Siberia)
subsp. jezoensis var. jezoensis
Bean (1976b) considered that the only material of Picea jezoensis in cultivation was attributable to subsp. hondoensis, from Honshu, rather than the nominate subsp. jezoensis from Hokkaido. Subsp. hondoensis remains the dominant presence in cultivation throughout our area, making fine trees in suitable gardens; it enjoys cool, moist conditions, but will grow steadily in less favourable conditions, such as in Finland (K. Rushforth, pers. comm. 2007). Subsp. jezoensis is still very rare, although it has been introduced on several occasions since 1861. A collection made by Frank N. Meyer (d.1918) in Siberia has been maintained in North America, and is currently represented by a grafted tree of 11 m (32.5 cm dbh) at the Morton Arboretum, derived from an original tree in the Arnold Arboretum (K. Kim, pers. comm. 2007). In the United Kingdom only one larger tree has been recorded by TROBI, growing at Darnaway in Moray, measured by Alan Mitchell at 11 m tall in 1989. Otherwise it seems to be represented, in Britain at least, only by young specimens grown from recent expeditions to Japan and the Russian Far East. From Hokkaido there is EHOK 20, collected in October 1997 in the Uryu Experimental Forest near Horokanai. Here the parent trees grew to 8 m tall, with a spread of 6 m, amongst mixed forest on volcanic slopes. It was also collected by Warner and Howick (W&H 550) in Hokkaido in 1987. Not surprisingly, plants from this provenance have not flourished at Quarryhill, resenting the heat, and the solitary survivor there (1 m tall) is in a lingering, yellowish state and has not put on new growth for some time (H. Higson, pers. comm. 2007). At Howick, however, several specimens from W&H 550 are healthy, though slow-growing (up to 2.5 m in 2007) – unlike a tree of subsp. hondoensis that has shot up to 10–12 m in the same time (C. Howick, pers. comm. 2007). From Sakhalin in 1994 there is ESUS 176, which is also attributable to subsp. jezoensis. At Kew the plants from this collection are still very small and they are apt to have their first flush of growth frozen in spring frosts, which is a pity, as the bright grass-green new shoots are attractive. They seem to be as difficult in cultivation as their compatriot Abies sachalinensis (see p. 58), with which the original Sakhalin trees were growing – a problem that might be termed ‘Siberian conifer syndrome’.
P. hondoensis Mayr
Abies alcocquiana Veitch ex Lindl., in part