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Article from Bean's Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles
'Populus deltoides' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online (treesandshrubsonline.
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A tree 100 ft or more high in the wild, with a short trunk and massive, spreading branches; bark pale greenish yellow on young trees, becoming grey and deeply furrowed; young stems glabrous, terete or slightly angled; buds brown, lustrous, resinous and balsam-scented, ovoid, acute, the lateral ones flattened. Leaves deltoid or broad-ovate, 3 to 5 in. long and about as wide, abruptly narrowed at the apex to a slender acute point, mostly truncate to shallowly cordate at the base, with two or three glands at the junction between the blade and petiole, medium green and glossy above, paler beneath, glabrous on both sides (or downy when young and more or less persistently downy on the veins beneath in f. pilosa (Sarg.) Sudw.), margins with a translucent border, finely ciliate, crenate-serrate, or crenate-dentate, the teeth with callous, incurved tips; petioles much flattened laterally, 21⁄2 to 4 in. long. Male catkins densely flowered, up to 2 in. long; female catkins 3 to 4 in. long, with distant flowers; scales divided into thread-like lobes. Stamens up to sixty or more, with red anthers. Stigmas three or four. Capsules three- or four-valved.
Native of eastern N. America; introduced, according to Aiton, in 1772. It is a rare tree in this country now, having long ago been displaced by its hybrids with the European P. nigra. From that species it differs in the shape of the leaf, which is very rarely broad-cuneate at the base, in its ciliate margins, and in the presence of petiolar glands. An example at Kew, pl. 1910, measures 75 × 61⁄4 ft (1967).
In the Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, Vol. 58, pp. 203–6 (1977), James E. Eckenwalder treats this species as follows:
subsp. deltoides P. angulata Ait.; P. angulata var. missouriensis Henry – Leaves shortly acuminate with usually three to five glands at the junction between blade and petiole. Pedicels in female flowers up to 15 mm long. This, the typical subspecies, ranges from the Gulf coast along the Atlantic seaboard to Massachusetts, inland to Ohio and central Illinois in the north, and to Texas and Oklahoma in the south.
subsp. monilifera (Ait.) Eckenwalder P. monilifera Ait.; P. deltoides var. monilifera (Ait.) Henry; P. sargentii Dode; P. texana Sarg. – Leaves often long-acuminate; basal glands absent or up to two. Pedicels in female flowers short, to 6 mm long. This ranges from the Great Lakes to the prairie states, south to the Panhandle of Texas.
subsp. wislizenii (S. Wats.) Eckenwalder P. fremontii var. wislizenii S. Wats.; P. wislizenii (S. Wats.) Sarg. – This poplar, of no importance to British growers, is mentioned briefly on page 312, under P. fremontii, which Eckenwalder accepts as a distinct species and which in places intergrades with P. deltoides subsp. wislizenii.
P. angulata var. missouriensis Henry (July 1913)
P.deltoides var. angulata (Ait.) Sarg. (August 1913)
P. angulata Ait