Symphoricarpos Doorenbos Group

TSO logo

Sponsor

Kindly sponsored by
The Normanby Charitable Trust

Credits

Owen Johnson (2021)

Recommended citation
Johnson, O. (2021), 'Symphoricarpos Doorenbos Group' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online (treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/symphoricarpos/symphoricarpos-doorenbos-group/). Accessed 2021-06-20.

Synonyms

  • Symphoricarpos × doorenbosii Krüssmann

Glossary

berry
Fleshy indehiscent fruit with seed(s) immersed in pulp.
clone
Organism arising via vegetative or asexual reproduction.
hybrid
Plant originating from the cross-fertilisation of genetically distinct individuals (e.g. two species or two subspecies).
pollination
Act of placing pollen on the stigma. Various agents may initiate pollination including animals and the wind.

Credits

Owen Johnson (2021)

Recommended citation
Johnson, O. (2021), 'Symphoricarpos Doorenbos Group' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online (treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/symphoricarpos/symphoricarpos-doorenbos-group/). Accessed 2021-06-20.

A group of hybrids showing features of S. albus subsp. laevigatus, S. microphyllus and S. orbiculatus in various combinations. Densely twiggy bushes to 2 m tall; shoots grey or reddish. Buds tiny. Leaves 4–6 cm long, ovate or sinuously lobed on suckers, with a rounded tip. Flowers pink, in dense terminal racemes from June to August. Fruit 1–2 cm wide, white to pink and usually flushed darker on the sunny side (Hoffman 2012).

USDA Hardiness Zone 4

RHS Hardiness Rating H6

Taxonomic note The name Symphoricarpos × doorenbosii was published by Krüssmann to describe the clone ‘Mother of Pearl’, but as this is a series of garden hybrids apparently involving three species, it has become more popular to define it as the Doorenbos Group. In this treatment, all the Symphoricarpos clones which may involve this group of parents are considered part of the Doorenbos Group, not only those raised in Holland by Doorenbos himself.

Around 1935, Simeon Doorenbos (1891–1980), Director of the parks service at The Hague in the Netherlands, began a Symphoricarpos breeding programme by planting S. albus subsp. laevigatus alongside S. × chenaultii and S. orbiculatus (the latter is one of S. × chenaultii’s parents); seedlings raised from these plants’ fruit were planted alongside the parents. Doorenbos’ aim was to combine the deep red and pink fruit of S. orbiculatus and its offspring with the larger fruit size and general vigour of S. albus subsp. laevigatus. During the Second World War, Doorenbos took his plants with him during evacuation to Groenekan, where his research continued. Early products of this programme were ‘Erect’ and ‘Magic Berry’, which as back-crosses between S. orbiculatus and S. × chenaultii and are covered here under the treatment of the latter hybrid (q.v.), while ‘White Hedge’ was selected as a seedling from plants left behind at The Hague. In 1950, Doorebos released ‘Mother of Pearl’, with large, pink berries, which was adopted by Krüssmann as the ‘type’ of a new hybrid, S. × doorenbosii (S. albus subsp. laevigatus × S. × chenaultii). In 1946 Doorenbos also collected seed grown in Sweden, apparently from Canadian plants of S. albus subsp. laevigatus, and added these to his programme (Hoffman 2012).

It should be borne in mind that all the original Doorenbos hybrids were raised from open pollination, leaving room for doubts as to the identity of the male parent in each case. Hans van Leysson, who took over the mantle of breeding Symphoricarpos in Holland at the Kolster nurseries, specifically for the cut flower market, repeatedly failed to hybridise S. albus subsp. laevigatus with either S. orbiculatus or S. × chenaultii, and it has been suggested that all the Doorenbos cultivars which do not show an obvious influence of S. orbiculatus are really just seedlings of S. albus (Hoffman 2012). S. × chenaultii itself, however, arose as a spontaneous and fertile hybrid between two species which recent genetic research (Bell 2010) has shown not to be particularly closely related within the genus, so there seems no obvious obstacle to prevent S. albus crossing with either the offspring or the parents. All known examples of S. albus also seem to have more or less white fruit, so strongly pink-flushed fruit provides some evidence for a hybrid origin. It would seem reasonable to suspect that white-fruited members of the Doorenbos Group are pure S. albus subsp. laevigatus, but for convenience they are all grouped together here in this account.


'Ariso'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MARLEEN®

A seedling probably of ‘Mother of Pearl’, released by C.M. Arisz in the Netherlands in 1996. Rich purplish-pink fruit to 13 mm wide, in clusters of 10–15 which often unite into larger groups and which ripen early (from mid-August). A plant with a drooping habit which has turned out to be sensitive to mildew and very sensitive to leaf-spot (Hoffman 2012).


'Arvid'

A small-growing white-fruited selection from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, distributed in 1990. Fruits about 11 mm wide are carried in clusters of about ten. The selection remains popular in Scandinavia but when grown in Holland is vulnerable to leaf-scab and mildew (Hoffman 2012). It is believed to have derived from North American seed and so probably represents pure Symphoricarpos albus.


'Evergreen'

A clone with relatively small (to 1 cm wide) white fruit, bred for floristry and registered by PlantScope in the Netherlands in 2009 (Hoffman 2012). (The foliage is not evergreen, but presumably lasts well on a cut stem.)


'Gonny'

White fruit to 12 mm wide, sometimes with a purplish fush; bred for floristry by G. A. Oudijk in the Netherlands and registered in 1998 (Hoffman 2012).


'Hecona'

An upright plant which stays green late into autumn; fruit to 12 mm wide, white to purplish pink. Distributed by H. J. Albrecht in Berlin in 1988 (Hoffman 2012).


'Kolcharm'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos CHARMING FANTASY

Raised by Jan de Jong in Holland around 1999, this is a compact, healthy selection with purplish-pink long-lasting fruit to 15 mm wide, in clusters of 10–15 which often unite to form larger groups; it is highly regarded by Hoffman (Hoffman 2012).


'Kolgreep'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos GREENPEARL FANTASY®

A compact but vigorous plant with early-ripening fruit to 13 mm wide, in clusters of 10–15. These are white with an interesting greenish tint, even when ripe. It is vulnerable to mildew but not to leaf-spot (Hoffman 2012). It was distributed by De Jong and Kolster BV in the Netherlands in 1999.


'Kolmabri'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL BRIDE®

White berries with a greenish tinge. Distributed by Kolster BV in the Netherlands in 2008 for the floristry trade (Hatch 2021–2022).


'Kolmagimel'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL MELODYPBR

White fruit with a dark pink top; released by Floribreed and Kolster BV in the Netherlands in 2010 for the floristry trade (Hoffman 2012).


'Kolmagis'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL SNOWQUEENPBR

White fruit to 13 mm wide in clusters of 10–15, often uniting into larger clusters. A dense plant which is fairly resistant to leaf-spot and mildew, and whose leaves are often lobed. It was bred for floristry use by Kolster BV in the Netherlands around 2005 (Hoffman 2012).


'Kolmajo'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL JOYPBR

White fruit with a purplish-pink top, to 13 mm wide, in clusters of 12–18 which sometimes unite. A vigorous upright form released by Floribreed and Kolster BV in the Netherlands in 2008, but somewhat susceptible to leaf-spot and mildew (Hoffman 2012).


'Kolmaman'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL MANDYPBR

An upright plant with rather large dark leaves (to 75 mm long) and large (15 mm) white fruit flushed pink on top; released by Kolster BV in the Netherlands in 2010 for the floristry trade (Hoffman 2012).


'Kolmaswet'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL SWEET®
Symphoricarpos 'Kolmagics'

Purplish-pink fruit to 10 mm wide, whose clusters of 8–12 often unite into larger groups. A low-growing healthy plant which is highly rated by Hoffman (Hoffman 2012) but which he feels is perhaps better in a window-box than a public park.


'Kolmatresu'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL TREASURE®

Small (to 1 cm wide) fruit, dark purplish pink. Released by Kolster BV in the Netherlands in 2012 for the floristry trade (Hoffman 2012).


'Kolmava'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL AVALANCHEPBR

White fruit to 15 mm wide, ripening early in clusters of 15–20 which often unite into larger groups but which soon discolour brown when not picked. A lax plant which is quite susceptible to mildew and leaf-spot. Released for floristry use by Floribreed and Kolster BV in the Netherlands in 2008; the abundance of its fruit is unsurpassed (Hoffman 2012).


'Kolmcan'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL CANDYPBR
Symphoricarpos PINK BLIZZARD®

Fruits rich purplish-pink, to 12 mm side, with clusters of 8–12 sometimes uniting, ripening from mid-August. A compact plant bred for garden use by Floribreed and Kolster BV in the Netherlands in 2007, but rather susceptible to leaf-spot and mildew (Hoffman 2012).


'Kolmgala'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL GALAXYPBR
Symphoricarpos SNOW BLIZZARD®

Late-ripening white fruit to 13 mm wide, in clusters of 10–15 which sometimes unite. A compact and disease-resistant clone released by Floribreed and Kolster BV in the Netherlands in 2007 for garden use, and rated by Hoffman as the best white-fruiting snowberry produced by 2012 (Hoffman 2012).


'Kolmprid'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL PRIDE®

Purplish-pink fruit to 15 mm wide, in clusters of 8–12 often uniting into larger clusters. Quite sensitive to mildew; released by Floribreed and Kolster GV in the Netherlands for floristry use in 2008 (Hoffman 2012).


'Kolmsno'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL SNOWFLAKE

White fruit to 12 mm wide; an upright plant with quite small leaves (to 45 mm long). Bred by Peter Kolster in the Netherlands in 1998 for floristry use (Hoffman 2012).


'Kolsweet'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL SWEETHEART
Symphoricarpos SWEET FANTASY®

Fruit white to purplish-pink, often bi-coloured, ripening from September in clusters of 10–14 which often unite into larger groups. Vigorous but moderately susceptible to mildew. Released for floristry use by Kolster BV in the Netherlands around 1999, but also proving useful in gardens (Hoffman 2012).


'Kordes'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos AMETHYST
Symphoricarpos DARAMEPBR

A vigorous, healthy selection with fruit to 13 mm wide, ripening from late August in trusses of 8–12, distributed by H.-J. Albrecht of Berlin in 1993 (Hoffman 2012). The fruit is described as purplish-pink but seems to deepen in colour as the plant matures (Hatch 2021–2022), and grown at the J.C. Raulston Arboretum in North Carolina was almost white (Dirr 2009).


'Laarhof'

A pink-fruiting form selected by André van Nijnatten in the Netherlands around 2000, but probably no longer in cultivation (Hoffman 2012).


'Laura'

Fruits late-ripening, light purplish-pink, to 15 mm wide, in clusters of 10–16 which often unite into larger groups. Distributed by G.A. Oudijk in the Netherlands in 1998 for floristry use (Hoffman 2012).


'Liset'

Found as a seedling by Simeon Doorenbos in his own garden (called Liset), and sold by the Darthuizer Nurseries from 1978; an upright plant whose white and pink-cheeked flowers later colour uniformly pink. This clone may no longer be in commerce (Hoffman 2012).


'Maartje'

White fruit with a dark purplish-pink flush, to 13 mm wide; bred for the floristry trade by Vink-Cloosterman in the Netherlands before 1999 (Hoffman 2012).


'Mother of Pearl'

Awards
AGM

‘Mother of Pearl’ was the first seedling raised by Simeon Doorenbos’ breeding programme which was thought to combine influences from Symphoricarpos albus subsp. laevigatus and from S. × chenaultii; it was named in 1950 and marketed via P. Lombarts from 1955 (Hoffman 2012). It forms a compact bush of moderate vigour with drooping branches whose masses of fruit in autumn are white with a pink or purplish flush on the sunny side, and have a pearly sheen. It is rather sensitive to leaf-spot and mildew (Hoffman 2012), and was killed by winter cold when trialled by Michael Dirr at Orono, Maine (US Hardiness Zone 5a) (Dirr 2009).


'Pink Pearl'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL PINK PEARL®

White fruit to 12 mm wide, densely spotted with purple to give a purplish-pink impression, in short terminal spikes. Distributed for floristry use by De Jong and Kolster BV in the Netherlands around 1997 (Hoffman 2012). Grown at the J.C. Raulston Arboretum in North Carolina it is very susceptible to mildew (Dirr 2009).


'Purple Hedge'

Fruit to 13 mm wide, purplish-pink, in clusters of 10–15 which often unite to form larger groups. A vigorous upright plant released by C.M. Arisz in the Netherlands in 2000, but rather susceptible to mildew (Hoffman 2012).


'Red Pearl'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus 'Red Pearl'

Purple-pink fruit to 13 mm wide, in clusters of 8–14 which regularly unite into larger groups. A compact plant which is quite sensitive to mildew and to leaf-spot (Hoffman 2012). It was released for floristry used by De Jong and Kolster BV in the Netherlands around 1996.


'Scarlet Pearl'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos MAGICAL SCARLET PEARL®

Fruit rich purplish-pink (not scarlet), to 13 mm wide, in clusters of 8–12 which often unite into larger groups. Released by Floribreed and Kolster BV in the Netherlands both as a florist’s and a gardener’s plant, but sensitive to mildew and particularly to leaf-spot (Hoffman 2012).


'Sofie'

Purplish-pink fruit to 13 mm wide, in clusters of 10–15 often uniting into larger groups and ripening very late (mid-September in Holland). A densely branched plant with quite large leaves, generally healthy but moderately susceptible to leaf-spot and mildew, released by C. M. Arisz in the Netherlands in 2009 (Hoffman 2012).


'Taiga'

White fruit with a purplish-pink cheek, c. 10 mm wide. Released by H. J. Albrecht, Berlin, in 1984 (Hoffman 2012).


'Vondy'

White fruit with a purple-pink flush, c. 12 mm wide, clustered at the ends of the side-shoots; released for floristry use in the Netherlands around 1995 (Hoffman 2012).


'White Hedge'

White fruit to 15 mm wide, in clusters of 10–15 which often unite into larger groups and ripen early (from mid-August). ‘White Hedge’ was raised in 1945 by Simeon Doorenbos, who considered it a form of S. × chenaultii; its white fruit suggest that it might really be pure S. albus subsp. laevigatus (Hoffman 2012), though it does not sucker (Bean 1981). A healthy, vigorous plant which has been widely distributed and, closely planted, is dense enough even in winter to serve as an effective hedge.


'White Pearl'

Synonyms
Symphoricarpos WHITE PEARL FANTASY®
Symphoricarpos albus 'White Pearl'

Fruit white, late-ripening, to 13 mm wide, in clusters of 15–20 which sometimes unite to form larger groups. A vigorous but compact plant, moderately vulnerable to mildew but resistant to leaf-spot (Hoffman 2012). Released for floristry use by De Jong and Kolster BV in the Netherlands in 1997, but proving too susceptible to Verticillium wilt.